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Shedding light on how the human eye perceives brightness

Scientists are shedding new light on the importance of light-sensing cells in the retina that process visual information. The researchers isolated the functions of melanopsin cells and demonstrated their crucial role in the perception of visual environment. T

Discovery of anti-opioid pathway offers new route to designing safer pain medications

A team has discovered a biological system that manages cells' response to opioid drug exposure. The unexpected discovery offers new ideas for improving the safety of the one of the most effective, and most abused, group of pain medications.

Physiological mechanisms leading to enterovirus opening revealed

Enteroviruses are one of the most common human pathogens leading to high number of acute and chronic infections worldwide. The physiological events leading to successful enterovirus infection are still poorly understood. Researchers have found significant ne

Nylon as a building block for transparent electronic devices?

Scientists have solved a four decade long challenge of producing very thin nylon films that can be used for instance in electronic memory components. The thin nylon films are several 100 times thinner than human hair and could thus be attractive for applicati

Humans migrated to Mongolia much earlier than previously believed

Stone tools uncovered in Mongolia by an international team of archaeologists indicate that modern humans traveled across the Eurasian steppe about 45,000 years ago.

How stress can curb the desire to eat in an animal model

Eating disorder researchers have discovered a neurocircuit in mice that, when activated, increased their stress levels while decreasing their desire to eat.

Researchers refine guidelines for pediatric brain injuries

There are no guidelines on whether a noninvasive method of measuring carbon dioxide from patients' exhalations, known as end-tidal capnography, is as effective as drawing blood through a child's artery. This study found that measuring the carbon dioxide leve

Children with mild asthma can use inhalers as needed, study suggests

A new study supports evidence that children with mild asthma can effectively manage the condition by using their two inhalers -- one a steroid and the other a bronchodilator -- when symptoms occur. This is in contrast to the traditional method of using the st

From the tiny testes of flies, new insight into how genes arise

A common birthplace of new genes, the male testes are a hotspot for biological innovation. Within these organs, scientists have found a trove of virgin genetic sequences -- and a better understanding of how evolution moves forward.

Researcher decodes the brain to help patients with mental illnesses

Approximately 1 in 5 adults in the United States experience mental illness in a given year. Severe mental illnesses cause the brain to have trouble dealing with cognitively effortful states, like focusing attention over long periods of time, discriminating be

Cannabis-related poison control calls for Massachusetts kids doubled after medical pot legalized

After medical marijuana became legal in Massachusetts, cannabis-related poison control calls involving the commonwealth's children and teenagers doubled, according to a public health investigation.

A novel cellular process to engulf nano-sized materials

Researchers have discovered a cellular process that allows nanomaterial entry into cells.

Tiny GPS backpacks uncover the secret life of desert bats

A new study using miniaturized satellite-based tags revealed that during drier periods desert bats must fly further and longer to fulfill their nightly needs. According to researchers this signals their struggle in facing dry periods.

Researchers demonstrate three-dimensional quantum hall effect for the first time

The quantum Hall effect (QHE), which was previously known for two-dimensional (2D) systems, was predicted to be possible for three-dimensional (3D) systems by Bertrand Halperin in 1987: Now it has been demonstrated.

New insight into bacterial infections found in the noses of healthy cattle

New research used the 'One Health' approach to study three bacterial species in the noses of young cattle and found the carriage of the bacteria was surprisingly different. The findings which combined ideas and methods from both animal and human health resear

Could biological clocks in plants set the time for crop spraying?

Plants can tell the time, and this affects their responses to certain herbicides used in agriculture according to new research. The study found that plant circadian rhythms regulate the sensitivity of plants to a widely used herbicide according to the time o

Discovery of a bottleneck relief in photosynthesis may have a major impact on food crops

Scientists have found how to relieve a bottleneck in the process by which plants transform sunlight into food, which may lead to an increase in crop production. They discovered that producing more of a protein that controls the rate in which electrons flow du

Gene regulation behind the choice of the correct receptor for olfaction

Scientists have uncovered the genetics behind two distinct types of olfactory sensory neurons; the so called 'class I olfactory neurons' that has persisted from aquatic to terrestrial animals and the 'class II olfactory neurons' that only terrestrial animals

Care of horses: Damage found in the bit area of most Finnish trotters

Damage was found in the part of the mouth affected by the bit in more than 80% of trotters examined after a race. However, such damage is easily overlooked due to being out of sight.

Ancient feces reveal how 'marsh diet' left Bronze Age Fen folk infected with parasites

'Coprolites' from the Must Farm archaeological excavation in East Anglia, UK, shows the prehistoric inhabitants were infected by parasitic worms that can be spread by eating raw fish, frogs and shellfish.

'Silent' strokes common after surgery, linked to cognitive decline

The study found that 'silent' covert strokes are actually more common than overt strokes in people aged 65 or older who have surgery.

Early species developed much faster than previously thought

When Earth's species were rapidly diversifying nearly 500 million years ago, that evolution was driven by complex factors including global cooling, more oxygen in the atmosphere, and more nutrients in the oceans. But it took a combination of many global envir

MDM2 counteracts resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors for melanoma therapy

A study has identified a possible second-line treatment for melanoma patients.

New contrast agent could make MRIs safer

Researchers have taken a key step forward in developing a new, possibly safer contrast agent for use in MRI exams.

Trauma begets trauma: Bullying associated with increased suicide attempts among 12-to-15-year-olds

A new study reports that bullying victimization may increase the risk of suicide attempts among young adolescents by approximately 3-times worldwide.

Extinct Caribbean bird yields DNA after 2,500 years in watery grave

Scientists have recovered the first genetic data from an extinct bird in the Caribbean, thanks to the remarkably preserved bones of a Creighton's caracara from a flooded sinkhole on Great Abaco Island.

Drug interaction research: Evolution clues

A new article has shown that a key biological component in the communication system of the nematode C. Elegans can be repurposed to take on a different job,. This critical finding about the workings of evolution could one day affect research into drug interac

Studying diseases like gout and kidney stones finds new drug targets

A new fruit fly model that mimics diseases associated with high uric acid levels, such as gout and kidney stones, has revealed new targets for developing treatments for these diseases.

Gene linked to physical and intellectual disabilities identified

Modern science and data sharing converged to underpin a study that identified a gene associated with a rare condition that results in physical and intellectual disabilities of children. The results suggest that rare variants in the gene DDX6 are associated wi

Addiction intervention in hospital is a 'reachable moment'

Patients who meet an addiction medicine consult team while they're in the hospital are twice as likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorder after they go home, according to new research. The study measures a key outcome for patients who part

Health research funding lags for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

Clinical research funding continues to lag for the US population of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, even though the nation's largest biomedical funding agency has pledged to prioritize research on diverse populations.

Expression of M gene segment of influenza A virus determines host range

The host range of the influenza A virus (IAV) is restricted by dysregulated expression of the M viral gene segment, according to a new study.

Newfound superconductor material could be the 'silicon of quantum computers'

Newly discovered properties in the compound uranium ditelluride show that it could prove highly resistant to one of the nemeses of quantum computer development -- the difficulty with making such a computer's memory storage switches, called qubits, function lo

Bloodsucker discovered: First North American medicinal leech described in over 40 years

Freshwater wetlands from Georgia to New York are home to a previously unrecognized species of medicinal leech, according to scientists. The new species was first identified from specimens collected in southern Maryland less than 50 miles from Washington, D.C.

Immune cells drive gallstone formation

Sticky meshworks of DNA and proteins extruded by white blood cells called neutrophils act as the glue that binds together calcium and cholesterol crystals during gallstone formation, researchers report. Both genetic and pharmacological approaches that inhibit

July 2019 was hottest month on record for the planet

Much of the planet sweltered in unprecedented heat in July, as temperatures soared to new heights in the hottest month ever recorded. The record warmth also shrank Arctic and Antarctic sea ice to historic lows.

Moon glows brighter than sun in images from NASA's Fermi

If our eyes could see gamma rays, the Moon would appear brighter than the Sun! That's how NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has seen our neighbor in space for the past decade.

How cells override genetic changes

A new discovery could lead researchers to a more effective way to treat pancreatic cancer.

Mutations linked to familial pancreatic cancer

A new study finds genetic mutations associated with hereditary forms of pancreatic cancer and mechanism by which these mutations may contribute to the development of tumors.
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